Very interesting article, and something that has appeared as a reference in “The ghost in the shell”. Allow me to begin these considerations on the uncertainties of Europe’s political identity at the beginning of the 21st century by referring to celebrated formulations from another European writer who, although belonging to a previous generation and writing along quite different lines, nevertheless shared some of the same experiences, namely exile and antifascist intellectual commitment: I am thinking of Thomas Mann.As we all know, Mann’s attitude towards politics completely changed between the First World War and the period of the rise of Nazism leading to the Second World War.